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Discuss cultural beliefs and influences relative to the health issue.

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.
In your Collaborative Learning Community, write a paper of 500-1,000 words and include the following:

Discuss cultural beliefs and influences relative to the health issue.
Differentiate any religious/spiritual beliefs and values relative to the issue.
Appraise how religious/spiritual beliefs and values have influenced progress in addressing the issue–either negatively or positively.
Compare differences in ideologies related to the issue across political party lines, geographic regions, and countries of the world.

This is  APA format aqt least 500 word, references. I have added all the topics that have been added so far, I have topics 1-4 added. the one that will worked on is Topic 5
  
Topic 1
Influenza CLC group essay 11-28-2017
Introduction
Influenza commonly known as flu is a contagious respiratory infection that attacks the general respiratory system that is, the nose, throat, and even the lungs. It is caused by the two types of influenza viruses which are influenza A, influenza B and influenza C (Wang & Tao, 2010). Attacks from both viruses are epidemic and seasonal as they are common within specific periods within a year. Attack mechanisms for influenza A viruses depends on the genes on the surface protein of a patient. They are normally spread through sneezing and coughing from an infected individual to the surrounding air (Wang & Tao, 2010).
The flu can also attack an individual in case they get into direct body tissue contact with an infected individual for example handshaking. Health professionals argue that the flu virus is stubborn and spreads mainly over tiny droplets which are produced when the infected individuals’ cough, talk, and sneeze (Wang & Tao, 2010). Such droplets are easily carried by the surrounding air and can be landed in the nose and mouths of the immediate persons. Additionally, it can enter into one’s system if he or she gets into direct contact with a surface or object that has the influenza bacteria and consequently rubs or touches their nose, mouth or even eyes (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Health departments have overtime identified initiative to address the problem of influenza, such initiatives include: 
Reducing human exposure to the flu viruses, this initiative works by notifying the public on the safe ways to prevent and control the spread of the virus and it actively works to reduce infection opportunities and curbs the spread of the pandemic virus (Abramson, 2011).
They have built able capacities to cope with the pandemic, measures have been taken and put in place to cope with the virus since helping the society to stay free from the virus (Abramson, 2011).
They have innovated much on early warning and acknowledgments, information about influenza and its impacts to the society are made clear since it is effective for the society to stay free from the influenza virus (Abramson, 2011).
Necessary global scientific researches are being carried out and developments to ensure that vaccines and antiviral drugs are available across the globe mostly during the seasons which the virus is spread. The scientific knowledge enables quick and effective identification of the virus at its initial stages (Abramson, 2011).
Several measures have been put in place to measure the progress of the issue. They include;
The World Health Organization has continuously carried out tests to identify cases of attack by the virus at its early stages that are in one to four days of an individual’s exposure to the influenza virus (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
Materials enlightening the public about the virus and the most convenient ways to stay free from the attack are being developed and provisional with all measures that can help curb and salvage the situation (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
The current status of the issue based on measures outcomes clarifies that the globe is well up and at a good place to overcome the spread of influenza viruses. This has been made possible by the continuous scientific researchers which develop antiviral drugs and vaccines which are work to stop the spread and impacts of the influenza virus upon the general society (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
References
Abramson, J. (2011). Inside the 2009 Influenza Pandemic. World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011.
Tam, J., & Sellwood, C. (2013). Pandemic Influenza. CABI, 2013.
Wang, Q., & Tao, Y. (2010). Molecular Virology. Horizon Scientific Press.
Topic 2
     Influenza 
Diane Boll, Lisa Hart, Risper Ireri
Grand Canyom University:NUR 508
12-06-2017
Influenza
Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory illness that mostly occurs during winter months north of the equator. Influenza, commonly known as the “flu” occurs between October and March and with reported outbreaks between September and May. Signs of influenza include but are not limited to high fever, myalgia, headache, sore throat, chills and persistent malaise (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Each year in the US alone, influenza and pneumonia result in 114,000 admissions with 36,000 lives lost and costs an estimated $12 billion (Walton, 2016). Edelman and Mandle (2006) discussed the influenza vaccine markedly reduce the incidence of complications, hospitalization, and deaths and the vaccine can be given to anyone above six months unless allergic to it. It’s given with caution to those with allergies to eggs (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Contrary to misconception, the most common vaccine is not made up of the live influenza virus but composed of the inactivated whole virus or virus subunits grown in chick embryo cells and given annually (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Influenza is a global issue as many in underprivileged countries without access to adequate health care continue to die from it and there is a need to rapidly identify the virus and provide proper treatment, thereby preventing its spread locally and internationally. 
Influence of Health and Socioeconomic Status on Influenza
Though all age groups can contract influenza those with fragile or weakened immune systems are more severely affected and include the pregnant women, elderly adults with comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. According to Walton (2016), children less than two years have the highest infection rate, but death rates are usually highest among elderly (age 65 and older). Influenza is associated with low social, economic status, lack of preventive treatment and poor housing. Most
of the people affected by influenza lack insurance coverage, have lower levels of education, are unemployed, lack social network and travel long distances to medical facilities (Watson, 2016).
Initiatives
Health departments have overtime identified initiatives to address the problem of influenza, such initiatives include: reducing human exposure to the flu viruses, this initiative works by notifying the public on the safe ways to prevent and control the spread of the virus and it actively works to reduce infection opportunities and curbs the spread of the pandemic virus (Abramson, 2011). They have built able capacities to cope with the pandemic, measures have been taken and put in place to cope with the virus since helping the society to stay free from the virus (Abramson, 2011). They have innovated much on early warning and acknowledgements, information about influenza and its impacts to the society are made clear since it is effective for the society to stay free from influenza virus (Abramson, 2011). Necessary global scientific researches are being carried out and developments to ensure that vaccines and antiviral drugs are available across the globe mostly during the seasons which the virus is spread. The scientific knowledge enables quick and effective identification of the virus at its initial stages (Abramson, 2011). Several measures have been put in place to measure the progress of the issue. They include; The world Health Organization has continuously carried out tests to identify cases of attack by the virus at its early stages that are in one to four days of a n individual’s exposure to the influenza virus (Tam & Sellwood, 2013). Materials enlightening the public about the virus and the most convenient ways to stay free from the attack are being developed and provisional with all measures that can help curb and salvage the situation (Tam & Sellwood, 2013). The status of the issue based on measures outcomes clarifies that the globe is well up and at a good place to overcome the spread of influenza viruses. This has been made possible by continuous scientific researchers which develop antiviral drugs and vaccines which are to stop the spread and impacts of the influenza virus upon the general society (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
Current Status of Influenza
Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) is “a comprehensive strategy to reduce the 
present global shortage of influenza vaccines for seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza in 
all countries of the world (GAP, 2017). Initially, GAP was to be accomplished through three 
major approaches: The first GAP approach was to encourage countries to increase their use of 
seasonal influenza vaccine. This would in turn reduce the disease burden of seasonal influenza
infections, help to contribute towards the preparedness of industrialized countries to respond to 
an eventual pandemic and possibly, most importantly, motivate industry to develop greater 
capacity for manufacturing vaccines (GAP, 2017). The second GAP approach concentrates on 
increasing production capacity for pandemic vaccines. The short-term goal was established, by 
2015 enough vaccine would be produced to immunize two billion people. Additionally, a long
term goal established to produce enough vaccine to immunize 70% of the world’s population 
with two doses (GAP, 2017). Lastly, the third GAP approach addressed the need for the research 
community to design more potent and effective vaccines through use of new technologies. 
Progress
According to the Global Action Plan, the seasonal influenza vaccine production 
capacity had increased globally from “less than 500 million per year to nearly 1 
billion doses per year” by the end of 2010, and the numbers have steadily continued
to rise yearly (2017). Additionally, 14 developing countries have been awarded 
grants from WHO to establish in-country manufacturing capacity for influenza 
vaccines to prevent and treat influenza (GAP, 2017). Moreover, significant progress 
has been achieved with new vaccine formulations. Regular consultations have been 
conducted to bring together vaccine researchers and public health professionals to 
discuss pandemic influenza vaccines and vaccines that can potentially induce broader 
spectrum and longer lasting immunity against both seasonal and pandemic influenza 
strains (GAP, 2017). Also, according to Global Action Plan (2017) sharing of 
research information has been made possible through a non-restricted internet based 
database to facilitate data sharing on clinical trials. This is updated and 
complemented with data from technical meetings, publications, and direct contacts 
with manufacturers.
Conclusion
From the time of the first documented global pandemic, which contributed to an estimated 
300,000 deaths worldwide, science has been researching and monitoring influenza (Influenza, 
2017). Through initiatives between joint stakeholders much progress has been made toward 
decreasing the number of deaths per year as well as other serious complications related to 
influenza (GAP, 2017). The best line of treatment will always be preventing and control through 
vaccination, early detection, and meticulous hand hygiene. 
References
Abramson, J. (2011). Inside the 2009 Influenza Pandemic. World Scientific Publishing 
Company, 2011. Retrieved from   
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/9789814343572_0001
Edelman, C. L., & Mandle, C. L. (2006). Health promotion throughout the life span (6th ed.). St.
Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Global Action Plan. (2017). World Health Organization (WHO). Global action plan for influenza 
vaccines (GAP) Retrieved from http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/
Influenza. (2017). World Health Organization (WHO). Influenza surveillance outputs Retrieved 
from http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/charts/en/
Tam, J., & Sellwood, C. (2013). Pandemic Influenza. CABI, 2013. Retrieved from 
http://www.worldcat.org/title/pandemic-influenza/oclc/798303591 
Walton, B. E. (2016). Influenza Pandemic and Other Bugs. Ohio Nurses Review, 91(6), 20-30.
Wang, Q., & Tao, Y. (2010). Molecular Virology. Horizon Scientific Press.
Topic 3
INFLUENZA(FLU)
Diane Boll, Lisa Hart, Risper Ireri
Grand Canyon University: NUR 508
12-20-2017
Influenza is a cross-community pandemic hence requires attention from all sectors involved in maintaining a community’s welfare. Therefore both the public and the private sectors are involved in funding for initiatives to address influenza and such is achieved through: 
For the public sector; 
State agencies; which are permanent or temporally bodies appointed by the government and assigned to oversee and administer in different areas within the state. State agencies which are designated with the responsibility to monitor the health sector and related programs actively provide public funding in such states (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Federal agencies; are special government organizations set up for the purpose to manage its resources and offering financial oversight to ensure accountability. Such units are sources of public funding to initiatives that address flu in the society (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Private corporations; are small business units held by non-governmental bodies or a small group of shareholders which offer products and services to the public. Such organizations offer funds to initiatives directed towards ending the influenza pandemic as a way of giving back to the society as an ethical practice (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Private foundations; are non-profit companies which are created through an initial donation from an individual or a firm and the donated funds are managed by the foundation’s trustees and directors. Initiative

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